How to Perform Rituals of The Hajj
- Circumambulation; a key element of the Hajj rituals. Performed seven times around the Ka‘ba anti-clockwise, starting from the eastern corner in which the Black Stone is embedded. The tawaf al-wada‘, the farewell tawaf, is the last rite of Hajj.
- The shuttling between the two hills of Safa and Marwah. The area in which the activity takes place is called the mas‘a (the place of hurrying).
- Literary meaning ‘standing’, this refers to the vigil that takes place from noon to sunset on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijja. ‘Arafat is where the Prophet Muhammad gave his Farewell Sermon in 632, the year of his death.
- Pilgrims collect 49 stones in Muzdalifa to be thrown over several days at the three pillars (jamrat) in the valley of Mina near Mecca.
- At Mina are the three pillars in the valley of Mina close to Mecca which represent the three times that Satan attempted to tempt Ibrahim (Abraham). They are known as Jamrat al-‘Aqaba (at the narrow pass of al-‘Aqaba, and the largest), Jamrat al-Wusta (the middle one) and Jamrat al-Sughra (the small one).
- ‘Eid al-Adha (festival of sacrifice) takes place on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijja, a great feast throughout the Muslim world. Pilgrims sacrifice a sheep (sometimes a goat) as a reminder of the obedience of Ibrahim (Abraham) who accepted to sacrifice his son Isma‘il (Ishmael) as an act of submission before God intervened allowing for a lamb to be sacrificed instead.
Day 1 (8th Dhu al-Hijja)
Arrival and change into ihram
Circling the Ka‘ba (tawaf)
Passing between the hills of Safa and Marwa (Sa’i)
3. Mecca to Mina
Stay over night
The rituals of Hajj
Day 2 (9th Dhu al-Hijja)
4. Mina to Plain of ‘Arafat
Day of vigil (wuquf)
5. ‘Arafat to Muzdalifa
Collecting stones and stay over night
Day 3 (10th Dhu al-Hijja)
6. Muzdalifa to Mina
Stoning largest pillar (Jamrat al-‘Aqaba)
The day of ‘Eid
7. Mina to Mecca
Circling the Ka‘ba
Passing between the hills of Safa and Marwa
8. Mecca to Mina
Stay for two or three nights
Days 4–6 (11th–12th/13th Dhu al-Hijja)
Stoning all three pillars (jamrat) in set order
Return to Mecca for final tawaf